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Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
There is also a starting rate band (SRB) of £5,000 which is only applicable to savings income. The band is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the SRB.
The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.
Income tax is devolved to Wales on non-savings and non-dividend income.
For Scottish residents the following bands apply for non-savings and non-dividend income:
For Welsh residents the following bands apply for non-savings and non-dividend income:
There are special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income.
A personal allowance gives an individual an annual amount of income free from income tax.
Income above the personal allowances is subject to income tax.
The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual's 'adjusted net income' is above £100,000. The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.
An individual born before 6 April 1935 may be entitled to a married couple's allowance but this is reduced if 'adjusted net income' is above the married couple's allowance income limit (see table below).
Marriage allowance - 10% of the personal allowance may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pays tax above the basic rate. The Marriage allowance is not available to couples entitled to the Married Couple's allowance.
£2,520 (2020/21: £2,500)
Either partner born before 6th April 1935.